Panentheism and the Combinatorics of the Determinations of the Absolute

A Comparison between K.C.F. Krause and G.W.F. Hegel


  • Ruben Schneider



Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781-1832) and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) are two representatives of German Idealism, both of whom developed impressing category systems. At the core of both systems is the question of the relation of the Absolute to its determinations and the determinations of finite beings. Both idealists try to deduce their respective category systems from the immediacy of the Absolute. Both use combinatorial methods to get from known to new categories or constellations in the system, which then unfold in the world (in creation, in world history etc.). Krause is thereby considered the eponym of so-called panentheism, the doctrine that “Everything is in God.” Hegel is also often referred to as a panentheist. Through a (necessarily superficial) comparison of the two systems of categories, in this essay the thesis will be advocated that Hegel was in no sense a panentheist. Krause is and remains the gold standard of panentheism.



How to Cite

Schneider, Ruben. 2022. “Panentheism and the Combinatorics of the Determinations of the Absolute: A Comparison Between K.C.F. Krause and G.W.F. Hegel”. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (2).



Special Issue - The Philosophy and Theology of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause